Volume 16 (1998)

The Image of Ukraine and the Ukrainians in Russian Political Thought (1860-1945)
Volodymyr A. Potulnytskyi

First generation
Second generation
Third generation

1 Paul Bushkovitch, "The Formation of a National Consciousness in Early Modern Russia," Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 10, No. 3/4, 1986, pp. 355-376; David Saunders, The Ukrainian Impact on Russian Culture, 1750-1850, Edmonton, 1986. At the same time in his vision of Ukraine in Russian culture, for example, Paul Bushkovitch was separated from the Ukrainian perspective, the structure of its reaction and self-articulation. See: Grygorii Grabowicz, Do istoriï  ukraïns'koï  literatury, Kyïv, 1997, pp. 111-113.
2 P. Bushkovitch, "The Ukraine in Russian Culture 1790-1860: The Evidence of the Journals," Jahrbücher füv Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 39, H. 3, 1991, S. 361.
3 P. Bushkovitch, Ibid., S. 339-363; D. Saunders, op. cit; G. Luckyj, Between Gogol' and Sevcenko. Polarity in the Literary Ukraine 1798-1847, München, 1971.
4 Andreas Kappeler, "The Ukrainians of the Russian Empire, 1860-1914," in: A. Kappeler (ed.), The Formation of National Elites (Comparative Studies on Governments and Non-dominant Ethnic Groups in Europe, 1850-1940, Vol. 6), Aldershot, New York, 1992, pp. 105-131; Idem, Rußland als Vielvökerreich: Enstehung, Geschichte, Zerfall, München, 1992, S. 208.
5 See Karl Mannheim, "The Problem of Generation," in: Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, London, 1952, pp. 302-304
6 Ibid.
7 C.A. Ruud, Fighting Words: Imperial Censorship and the Russian Press, 1804-1906, Toronto, Buffalo, London, 1982, pp. 98 f, 117; S.R. Tompkins, The Russian Intelligentsia: Makers of the Revolutionary State, Norman, 1957, p. 69; H. Rogger, Russia in the Age of Modernization and Revolution 1881-1917, London, New York, 1989, p. 57 f.
8 About conservative nationalism in Russia see: A. Walicki, The Slavophile Controversy: History of Conservative Utopia in Nineteenth-Century Russian Thought, Oxford, 1975; Edward C. Thaden, Conservative Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Russia, Seattle, 1964; Idem, Interpreting History: Collective Essays on Russia's Relations with Europe, New York, 1990.
9 The term Conservative Nationalism refers to the efforts of certain nineteenth-century political and intellectual leaders in Russia and Central Europe to use nationalism as a means of developing feelings of emotional attachment to traditional values and institutions and of promoting harmony and national unity between all social classes. See: E. Thaden, Interpreting History, p. 203.
10 See: D. Saunders, "Mikhail Katkov and Mykola Kostomarov: A Note on Petr A. Valuev's anti-Ukrainian Edict of 1863," Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. XVII, No. 3-4, 1993, pp. 365-383.
11 "Ukrainophils," a term this paper will use, is the Russian word for the members of the Ukrainian National movement.
12 Sovremennaia Letopis', No. XVIII, 1861, p. 124.
13 See: D. Saunders, "Mikhail Katkov and Mykola Kostomarov: A note on Petr A. Valuev's Anti-Ukrainian Edict of 1863," pp. 370-371.
14 At the same time Katkov found the Poles' aspirations for independence objectionable, and accepted, that Polish claims were rational, because Poland had once been an independent state and Polish was certainly a separate language. See: Ibid., p. 372.
15 Osnova, No. XX, 1863, pp. 327-329.
16 Mikhail Katkov, Sobranie peredovykh statei "Moscovskikh vedomostei" 1865 god, M., 1897, p. 87.
17 Ibid., p. 805.
18 Osnova, 1863, No. XX, p. 340.
19 Ibit.
20 See: E. Thaden, Interpreting History, p. 206.
21 Sovremennaia Letopis', No. XVII, 1861, pp. 124-125.
22 Ivan Aksakov, "Nashi nravstvennye otnosheniia k Pol'she," Den', November 18, 1861.
23 I. Aksakov, "Pol'skii vopros i zapadno-russkoe delo," in: I. Aksakov, Sochineniia, Vol. III, M., 1886, p. 15.
24 Ibid., p. 16.
25 I. Aksakov, Moskva, "18-go noiabria 1861 g.," in: Sochineniia, Vol. III, p. 7.
26 The Letter of I. Aksakov to Countess Bludova, in: N.P. Barsukov, Zhizn' i trudy M.P. Pogodina, SPb., 1905, p. 121.
27 Sovremennaia Letopis', No. XVII, 1861, pp. 141.
28 Den', No. XVIII, 1861, p. 133.
29 Ibid., p. 142.
30 I. Aksakov, "Pol'skii vopros i zapadno-russkoe delo," pp. 132-133.
31 E. Thaden, Interpreting History, p. 207.
32 Idem, Conservative Nationalism, p. 137.
33 See: Iurii Samarin, "Sovremennyi ob'''em Pol'skogo voprosa," in: Iu. Samarin, Sochineniia, Vol. 1, M., 1877, pp. 319-343.
34 Ibid., p. 331.
35 Ibid.
36 Iu. Samarin, "Okrainy Rossii," Vol. I, in: Sochineniia, Vol. VIII, M., 1890, p. 146.
37 Iu. Samarin, "Sovremennyi ob'em Pol'skogo voprosa," p. 332.
38 Ibid., p. 333.
39 B. Baron, E. Nol'de, Iurii Samarin i ego vremia, Paris, 1978, p. 210.
40 Den', No. XXII, 1863, p. 134.
41 Iu. Samarin, "Moskva, March 18, 1867," in: Sochineniia, Vol. IX, M., 1898, p. 469.
42 Liberalism, which generally is the aspiration for a lawful state, in which the state establishes and protects the personal freedom and property relations, in Russia, like in other "undeveloped" countries, is the aspiration for greater social justice, lesser expenses and preservation of the right to private property, as well as issuing laws which are common and usual for Western liberalism. About liberalism in Russia see: Sumner Benson, "The Conservative Liberalism of Boris Chicherin," Forschungen Öteuropäische Geschichte, No. 21, 1975, S. 17-114; Friedrich Diestelmeier, Soziale Angst: Konservative Reaktionen auf liberale Reformpolitik in Rußland unter Alex II (1855-1866), Frankfurt a. M., 1985; M. Raeff, "Some Reflections on Russian Liberalism," The Russian Review, Vol. 18, July 1959, pp. 218-230; Leonard Schapiro, Rationalism and Nationalism in Russian Nineteenth-Century Political Thought, New Haven, 1967; Hugh Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801-1917, Oxford, 1967; Hans Joachim Torke (ed.), Die russischen Zaren, 1547-1917, München, 1995.
43 Boris Chicherin, O narodnom predstavitel'stve, M., 1866, pp. 187f, 192, 396, 400fff.
44 B. Chicherin, Neskol'ko sovremennykh voprosov, M., 1862, p. 33.
45 See: K. Kavelin, Vzgliad na iuridicheskii byt drevnei Rossii, M., 1847; Idem, Mysli i zametki o russkoi istorii, SPb., 1866.
46 K. Kavelin, Sobranie sochinenii, Vol. I, SPb., 1897. p. 599.
47 A.N. Pypin, Moi zametki, M., 1910, pp. 44-45.
48 A.N. Pypin, "Malorusskaia etnografiia poslednykh dvadtsati piati let," Vestnik Evropy, No. 1, 1886, p. 337.
49 A.N. Pypin, "Obzor malorusskoi etnografii," Vestnik Evropy, No. 10, 1885, p. 799.
50 A.N. Pypin, "Volga i Kiev," Vestnik Evropy, No. 7, 1885, p. 213.
51 Ibid., p. 206.
52 Ibid.
53 Ibid., p. 210.
54 Ibid., p. 211.
55 A.N. Pypin, Istoriia russkoi etnografii, Vol. IV, SPb., 1912, p. 12.
56 A.N. Pypin,"Obzor," Vestnik Evropy, No. 12, 1885, p. 805.
57 A.N. Pypin, "Malorusskaia etnografiia," Vestnik Evropy, No. 1, 1886, p. 316.
58 Ibid., p. 334.
59 Ibid., p. 336.
60 A.N. Pypin, "Volga i Kiev," p. 204.
61 A.N. Pypin, "Malorusskaia etnografiia," p. 344.
62 A.N. Pypin, "Volga i Kiev," p. 203.
63 A.N. Pypin, "Malorusskaia etnografiia," p. 334.
64 A.N. Pypin, "Volga i Kiev," p. 215.
65 A.N. Pypin, "Malorusskaia etnografiia," p. 334.
66 Pavel Miliukov, Ocherki po istorii russkoi kul'tury, Vol. I, SPb., 1896, p. 17.
67 P. Miliukov, Lektsii po "Vvedeniiu v kurs russkoi istorii," Pt. I, M., 1894-1895, p. 17.
68 For example, during the zemstvist-Polish conference of April, 1905, particularly in respect to the question of autonomy for the Kingdom of Poland, Miliukov marked, that in those regions, where the Poles comprise one of the nationalities, namely, in Lithuania and Ukraine, it is "necessary to postpone a more detailed definition of the boundaries and content of Polish autonomy until a thorough investigation of the question." See: Russkie vedomosti, No. 98, April 11, 1905, p. 3.
69 Gosudarstvennaia Duma, Chetvertyi sozyv, Stenographicheskie otchety, 1914, Sesiia II, Part 2, SPb., 1914, p. 915.
70 C. Jay Smith, Jr., "Miliukov and the Russian National Question," Harvard Slavic Studies, Vol. IV, Cambridge, Mass, 1957, p. 405.
71 Gosudarstvennaia Duma, Chetvertyi sozyv, Stenographicheskie otchety, 1914, Sesiia II, Part 2, pp. 915-916.
72 P. Miliukov, Vospominaniia, 1859-1917, Vol. II, New York 1955, pp. 167-168.
73 Gosudarstvennaia Duma, Chetvertyi sozyv, Stenographicheskie otchety, 1914, Sesiia II, Part 2, pp. 915-916.
74 Ibid., p. 915.
75 Some observations of the attitude of the Kadet's party toward the Ukrainian question can be found in: S. Breiar, "Ukraina, Rossiia i kadety," in: In memorial: Istoricheskii sbornik, M.-SPb., 1995; Idem, "Partiia kadetov i ukrainskii vopros (1905-1917)," in: Issledovaniia po istorii Ukrainy i Belorussii, Vyp. 1, M., 1995; Irina Michutina, "Ukrainskii vopros i russkie politicheskie partii nakanune pervoi mirovoi voiny," in: A.I. Miller, V.F. Reprintsev, B.N. Floria (eds.), Rossiia-Ukraina: istoriia vzaimootnoshenii, M., 1997, pp. 197-208.
76 Rech', May 10, 1917, p. 2.
77 P. Miliukov, "Dnevnik," October 13, 1918, p. 220, in: Columbia University Russian Archives.
78 Ibid., November 18, 1918, pp. 295-299.
79 Richard Pipes, "Peter Struve and Ukrainian Nationalism," Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. III-IV, Part II, 1979-1980, p. 675.
80 Petr Struve, "K programme Soiuza Osvobozhdeniia," Osvobozhdenie, No. 69 / 70, May 7 / 20, 1905, p. 307.
81 Ibid.
82 Quoted in R. Pipes, Struve: Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980, pp. 211-212.
83 P. Struve, "Chto takoe Rossiia?," Russkaia mysl', No. XXXII, January 1911, p. 185.
84 Ibid., p. 187.
85 P. Struve "Obshcherusskaia kul'tura i ukrainskii partikuliarizm: otvet ukrainstvu," Russkaia mysl', No. XXXIII, January 1912, p. 65.
86 Ibid., p. 86.
87 P. Struve, "Velikaia Rosiia i Sviataia Rus'," Russkaia mysl', No. XII, 1914, p. 178.
88 Vladimir Vernadskii, Dnevniki 1917-1921, October 1917 - January 1920, Kiev, 1994, p. 158.
89 Ibid., pp. 71, 103.
90 Ibid., pp. 105, 159.
91 About Hrushevs'kyi's views on the subject see: V. Potul'nyts'kyi, "M. Hrushevs'kyi iak sotsiolog," Visnyk Kyïvs'koho Universytetu, Istorychni i filologichni nauky, No. 1, 1991, pp. 1-19; Idem, "Naukova diial'nist' M. Hrushevs'koho v emigratsiï  (1919-1924)," Ukraïns'kyi istorychnyi zhurnal, No. 2, 1992, pp. 48-58; Idem, Narysy z ukraïns'koï  politologiï  (1819-1991), Kyïv, 1994, pp. 82-101, 116-130; Idem, "Das ukrainische historische Denken im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert: Konzeptionen und Periodisierung," Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 45, H. 1, 1997, S. 2-30.
92 V. Vernadskii, "O M.S. Hrushevskom: Iz dnevnika Vernadskogo 1934 goda," Istoricheskii arkhiv, No. 4, 1997, p. 202.
93 Ibid.
94 About the Russian Right Parties in 1905-1917 see: R. Edelman, "The Russian Nationalist Party and the Political Crisis of 1909," Russian Review, Vol. 34, 1975, pp. 22-54; Caspar Ferenczi, "Nationalismus und Neoslawismus in Rußland vor dem ersten Weltkrieg," Forschungen zur Osteuropäischen Geschichte, No. 34, 1984, S. 7-127; H. Jablonowski, "Die russischen Rechtsparteien 1905-1917," in: Rußland-Studien: Gedenkschrift für Otto Hoetzsch, Stuttgart, 1957, S. 43-55; H-D. Löwe, "Nationalismus und Nationalitätenpolitic als Integrationsstrategie im zaristischen Rußland," A. Kappeler (ed.), Die Russen: Ihr Nationbewußtsein in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Köln, 1990, S. 55-79; H. Rogger, "Russia," in: H. Rogger and E. Weber (eds.), The European Right: A Historical Profile, Berkeley 1965, pp. 443-500; Idem, "The Formation of the Russian Right, 1900-1906," California Slavic Studies, No. III, 1964, pp. 66-94; Idem, "Was there a Russian Fascism? The Union of Russian People," The Journal of Modern History, No. XXXVI, 1964, pp. 398-415.
95 Russkoe Znamia, January 28, 1906, pp. 1-2.
96 Ibid.
97 Gosudarstvennaia Duma, Chetvertyi sozyv, Stenographicheskie otchety, 1914, Sesiia II, Part 2, p. 729.
98 "Zapiska Durnovo," Krasnaia Nov', Vol. VI, M., 1922, pp. 182-189. See transl. in: Frank Golder (ed.), Documents of Russian History: 1914-1917, New York-London, 1927, pp. 10-16.
99 Documents of Russian History, p. 12.
100 See more widely: A. Storozhenko, Proiskhozhdenie i sushchnost' Ukrainofil'stva, Kiev, 1912; R. Edelman, Gentry Politics on the Eve of the Russian Revolution: The Nationalist Party, 1907-1977, New Brunswick, 1980.
101 Vasilii Shul'gin, The Years: Memoirs of a Member of the Russian Duma, 1906-1917, New York, 1984, p. 21.
102 Ibid., p. 173.
103 Vasilii Shul'gin, Dni, L., 1926, pp. 151, 156.
104 A. Savenko, "Zametki," Kievlianin, March 13, 1910.
105 O edinstve russkogo naroda, SPb., 1907, p. 38.
106 V. Shul'gin, A. Savenko, "Is it possible to recognize the Ukrainian State? (Motives for rejecting Ukrainian citizenship by V.V. Shul'gin and A.I. Savenko)," in: Statni ustredni archiv v Praze, Ukrajinsky museum, 13, 349, 1, pp. 14-17.
107 Letter by Shul'gin to an unknown addressee to Omsk, February 15, 1919, Wrangel Military Archives, Hoover Institution Archives, File 132. Quoted in: Anna Procyk, "Nationality Policy of the White Movement: Relations Between the Volunteer Army and the Ukraine," Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1973, p. 110.
108 Ibid.
109 He ridiculed the leaders of the Ukrainian revolution and published books and articles grossly anti-cemitic and Ukrainofobic in character. See: V. Shul'gin, Ukrainstvuishche i my, Belgrade, 1935; Idem, Chto nam v nikh ne nravitsia, Paris, 1929; Idem, Le plus grand mensonge du XXe siecle: L' Ukraine, Paris, 1939.
110 See more widely: Wolodymyr Stoiko, "The Attitude of the Russian Provisional Government Towards the Non-Russian Peoples of the Empire," Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1969; A. Procyk, op. cit.; Ia. Zamoiskii, "Otnoshenie 'beloi' russkoi emigratsii k ukrainskim voprosam," Slavianovedenie, No. 4, 1993, pp. 39-49; Ia. A. Slashchov-Krymskii, Belyi Krym 1920: Memuary i dokumenty, M., 1990, pp. 185-205.
111 A definition of evraziistvo as a world of ideas which were formed in the Russian emigration of the twentieth into a system known under the name of evraziistvo was made by prince Nikolai Trubetskoi (1890-1938). "A national substrate of that country which earlier was called the Russian Empire and now is called the USSR Ñ he wrote in 1927, Ñ should necessarily include all the totality of the peoples inhabiting this country which is regarded as a specific multinational nation and, as such, possessing a specific kind of nationalism. We call this nation Eurasian, its territory — Evrazia, its nationalism — evraziistvo. See: Evraziiskaia khronika, No. 7, Paris, 1927, p. 64.
112 The Eurasians' main ideas were: 1. A selfhood of the Eurasian culture, the foundation of which is the Great Russian culture; 2. The domination of ideology, the foundation of which is Orthodoxy and domination of culture which expresses the nationwide interests; 3. Russian destiny is defined by its geostrategic location and self-ascribed role of a bridge between Europe and Asia. About evraziistvo see: M. Raeff, Russia Abroad: A Cultural History of the Russian Emigration. 1919-1939, New York-Oxford, 1990; Rossiia mezhdu Evropoi i Aziei: evraziiskii soblazn, M., 1993; L.N. Gumilev, Ritmy Evrazii, M., 1993; L.E. Gorizontov, "Evraziistvo. 1921-1931: vzgliad iznutri," Slavianovedenie, No. 4, 1992, pp. 86-105; V.T. Pashuto, Russkie istoriki emigranty v Evrope, M., 1992; V.A. D'iakov, "O nauchnom soderzhanii i politicheskikh interpretatsiiakh istoriosofii evraziistva," Slavianovedenie, No. 5, 1993, pp. 101-116.
113 Georgii Vernadskii, Nachertanie russkoi istorii, Part 1, Praha, 1927.
114 Ibid., p. 34.
115 Vernadskii's coined term, mestorazvitie,was subsequently accepted even by his strong opponent, Miliukov. See: P. Miliukov, Ocherki po istorii russkoi kul'tury, rev. ed., Vol. I, Part I, Paris, 1937, pp. 35-36.
116 G. Vernadskii, A History of Russia, Vol. III, The Mongols and Russia, New Haven, 1959, pp. 335-336.
117 Ibid., pp. 337-338.
118 G. Vernadskii, Nachertanie russkoi istorii, pp. 229-230.
119 Ibid.
120 G. Vernadskii, Opyt istorii Evrazii s poloviny VI veka do nastoiashchego vremeni, Berlin, 1934, pp. 7-8.
121 "The Ukrainian Problem," in: N. Trubetskoi, The Legacy of Genghis Khan and Other Essays on Russia's Identity, Ann Arbor, Michigan Slavic Publications, 1991, pp. 251, 255-256.
122 Ibid., pp. 263, 258.
123 "The Ukrainian Problem," p. 257.
124 Drahomanov framed this particular vision in terms of a tripartite concept which mapped out a "Ukrainian," "Russian" and common East Slavic (in other words, "all-Russian") component in the Imperial culture. See: V. Potul'nyts'kyi, Narysy z ukraïnskoï  politologii (1819-1991), Kyïv, 1994, pp. 17-25; Idem, "The Image of Russia and the Russians in Ukrainian Political Thought (1860-1945)," in: K. Inoue, T. Uyama (eds.), Quest for Models of Coexistence: National and Ethnic Dimensions of Changes in the Slavic Eurasian World, Sapporo, Slavic Research Center, 1998, pp. 163-195.
125 N. Trubetskoi, The Common Slavic Element in Russian Culture, New York, 1949, pp. 21-22.
126 Ibid., pp. 25, 24.
127 Ibid., p. 23.
128 N. Trubetskoi, "Otvet D.I. Doroshenku," Evraziiskaia khronika, No. X, Paris, 1928, p. 59.
129 The Eurasian school has been subjected to severe criticism by Pavel Miliukov (See, particularly, his essay: "Eurasianism and Europeanism in Russian History," Festschrift Th. G. Masaryk zum 80. Geburstag, Vol. I, Bonn, 1930, pp. 225-236) and Petr Struve (See: "Rossiia," in: P. Struve, Patriotika: Politika, kul'tura, religiia, sotsializm, M., 1997, pp. 408-420). Another severe critic of the Eurasians' ideas was Vasilii Shul'gin. See his article: "Zlost'," Vozrozhdenie, December 16, 1926.
130 Petr Bitsilli, "Natsiia i iazyk," Sovremennye zapiski, No. 40, Paris, 1929, p. 409
131 Ibid., pp. 419-420.
132 Ibid., p. 416.
133 Ibid., pp. 420-421.
134 P. Bitsilli, "Problema russko-ukrainskikh otnoshenii v svete istorii," in: P. Bitsilli, V. Iartseva (eds.), Izbrannye trudy po fililogii, M., 1996, pp. 114, 134.
135 Here under the nation Bicilli understand the Russians and under the narod — Ukrainians. See: P. Bicilli, "Natsiia i narod," Sovremennye zapiski, No. 37, Paris, 1928, pp. 351, 352.
136 P. Bicilli, "Problema russko-ukrainskikh otnoshenii v svete istorii," p. 132.
137 Georgii Fedotov, "Tri stolitsy," Novyi Mir, No. 4, 1989, p. 215.
138 G. Fedotov, "Novyi idol," Sovremennye zapiski, No. 57, Paris, 1935, p. 400.