CONTENTS

List of Conferences and Seminars 2022

April


■SRC Seminar:

 

Date & Time: April 16 (Sat) at 19:00 (Japan Standard Time), 12:00 (CEST), 10:00 (UTC)

Speaker:Prof. Evgeny Dobrenko (Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia)

Title:"Агония российской автократии: Сталинизм - Путинизм - Сталинизм"

Venue:Zoom meeting

Language:Russian

Registration:https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJEvf--prz0jE9Jd-xYJlT-tE9wmVAo8V3Tw

Organizers:
      Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University
      Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)
      Japanese Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Kakenhi) (B): A Comprehensive Study on the Melodramatic Imagination in Russian and Former Soviet Culture

Contact:adaisuke[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 

 

 

 

 

■ OSW-SRC Special Seminar◆◇◆

 

Date & Time:April 20 (Wed.), 2022, 16:30-18:00(JST)

Title:War in Ukraine and beyond: Polish and Japanese Perspectives and Recommendations

Language:English

Opening Remarks:Pawel Milewski (Ambassador to Japan, Polish Embassy)

Panelists:
      Adam Eberhardt (Director, Center for Eastern Studies, Poland)
      Akihiro Iwashita (Professor, Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)
      Wojciech Konończuk (Deputy Director, Center for Eastern Studies (OSW), Poland)
      Shinichiro Tabata (Professor, Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

Venue:Online Webinar (Pre-registration required)

Registration:https://us06web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_RHdvThyLT4yNFHxqt8J-Lw

Organized by:Centre for Eastern Studies(OSW) & Slavic-Eurasian Researh Center (SRC), Hokkaido University

In partnership with:Embassy of Poland in Tpkyo, Japan

Contact:Akihiro Iwashita <join_us[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp > ([at] read as @)

 

 

 

 

 


May


Research Seminar with Professor M. Khodarkovsky ◆◇◆

Date & Time:May 20 (Fri), 2022, 16:00-18:00

Speaker:Professor M. Khodarkovsky (Loyola University Chicago / SRC)

Title:Empires of the Steppe: Eurasian Empires in Comparative Perspective, 1500-1900

Language:English

Venue:Hybrid style (Room 303 of ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies + Online via zoom), Pre-registration is required

* Please make an entry in the following form for the pre-registration in either case you wish to participate in the seminar on-site or online.
**Applications to on-site participation will be accepted in order of receipt. The applications will close even before the deadline when the prescribed number of applicants is reached (on the other hand, applications to online participation will be accepted until the deadline).
*** Pre-registration deadline :
-On-site: at 12:00 a.m. on May 13, 2022
-Online: at 12:00 a.m. on May 20, 2022
Pre-registration form:https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1gASUEv9p5TPSUJCWlvg46iMKUTTxuPY6XCryleitt7w/


Co-organizer:
- Grant-in Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A)
 “Connectivity and Trust Building in Islamic Civilization” (Area Organizer: Hidemitsu KUROKI (ILCAA); 20H05823)
 “Changes in the World of Islamic Thought and Knowledge” (Principal Investigator: Jin NODA (ILCAA); 20H05825)
 “The Ideas of the Muslim Community and State Systems” (Principal Investigator: Nobuaki KONDO (ILCAA); 20H05827)
- Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

Contact
Jin NODA (ILCAA) nodajin[at]aa.tufs.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

https://connectivity.aa-ken.jp/activity/660/


June


■International Workshop "Comparative Imperial History: Eurasian and American Perspectives"

 

Date & Time: June 6 (Mon), 2022, 14:30–18:00 (GMT+9)

Format: Hybrid (in-person in Room 403, Slavic-Eurasian Research Center (SRC), Hokkaido University, and online via Zoom)

Language:English

 

Papers:
 "American Empire in Global History"
  Antony G. Hopkins (University of Cambridge)
 "Where Russia Was 'Ahead' of Europe: Russia's State Colonialism in Comparative Perspective"
  Michael Khodarkovsky (Loyola University Chicago)
 "How Imperial Powers Addressed Foreign Spiritual Authorities: The Case of the Russian Empire and the 'Tibetan Buddhist World'"
  Takehiko Inoue (SRC)
 "Topographic Factors in Empire/State-Building in Modern Tian Shan: A Preliminary Analysis"
  Tetsu Akiyama (Hokkaido University of Education)

 

Discussants:
 Shigeru Akita (Osaka University)
 Norihiro Naganawa (SRC)

 

Chair: Tomohiko Uyama (SRC)

 

Pre-registration is required for both on-site and online participation:

https://forms.gle/JKUFTAifyNjdJ1vJ7

Registration deadline: June 4 (Sat), 2022

(The registration for on-site participation can be closed before the deadline if the number of applicants reaches the limit.)

 

Organized by the Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies at the Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

Contact: Tomohiko Uyama uyama[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @) 

 

■ SRC Seminar◆◇◆

 

Date & Time: June 10 (Fri), 2022, 12:00-13:00 (JST, UTC+9) / June 9 (Thu), 2022, 22:00-23:00 (CDT, UTC-5)
Lecturer: Dr. Renee Perelmutter (Univ. of Kansas, USA)
Title: Nonbinary Language Innovations in Russian: Globalization and Identity
Registration: https://forms.gle/bitAVRYhqTsi4G6h7(Pre-registration required: June 8 noon)

Contact: Motoki NOMACHI mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 

 

 

 

 

■SRC/HU School of Humanities and Human Sciences Joint Seminar: Frontiers in Armenian Studies ◆◇◆

 

Date & Time:June 22 (Wed) 17:00-19:00

 

17:00-18:00

Lecturer:Dr. Hrach Martirosyan (Independent Researcher)

Title:The Place of Armenian in the Indo-European Language Family (with a Special Emphasis on Greek, Indo-European, and Balto-Slavic)

 

18:00-19:00

Lecturer:Dr. Karen Hamada (Univ. of Tokyo)

Title:Armenian Black Sea: The Local History of the Armenian Communities in the Black Sea Region in "History of Pontos" by Minas Bzhshkean (1777-1851)

 

Registration:https://forms.gle/Sy6bPw8YDCxy3xBHA (Pre-registration required. The deadline: June 21 (Tue) PM 12:00)

Contact:Satoshi Toda (jsattoda[at]let.hokudai.ac.jp), Motoki Nomachi (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:School of Humanities and Human Sciences at Hokkaido University Slavic-Eurasian Research Center

 

■SRC Special Seminar "Writers and Proprietors: Land, Copyright, and Authorship in the Russian Empire"

 

Date & Time: June 29 (Wed.), 2022, 16:30-18:30 (GMT+9)

Format: Hybrid (in-person in Room 403, Slavic-Eurasian Research Center (SRC), Hokkaido University, and online via Zoom)

Language:English

 

Speakers:
 Edyta Bojanowska (Yale University, USA /SRC), "Was Tolstoy a Colonial Landlord? The Dilemmas of Private Property and Russia's Settler Colonialism on the Bashkir Steppe"

 Kirill Zubkov (SRC), "‘Infringing All My Rights, Even Property’: Ivan Goncharov and the Problem of Copyright in the Russian Empire"

 

Registration:
 https://forms.gle/BVQszg2gwvTUkDCp9

 Pre-registration is required for the Seminar: Registration deadline June 29 (Mon.), 2022

 

Organizers:
 Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies(Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

 Japanese Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Kakenhi) (B):
  A Comprehensive Study on the Melodramatic Imagination in Russian and Former Soviet Culture
  Melting Empire: Modernizing State and Destabilized Society in the Borderlands of Late Imperial Russia

 

Contact:Yoko Aoshima (yoko.aoshima[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 


July


■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:July 5 (Tue), 2022, 10:00-21:00 (CET, UTC+1)

Lecturer:Dr. Gabriela Múcsková (Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics SAS, Slovakia)

Title:Slovak Dialects Revitalised - In New Functions and in the Folk Linguistics

 

Registration:https://forms.gle/nwT4AyiRQdT7vkvG8 Pre-registration required (July 5 noon)

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies at the Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University, supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:July 8 (Fri), 2022, 17:05-18:05 (in-person)

Speaker:Prof. Ranko Matasović (University of Zagreb / Hokkaido University)

Title:The Etymology of the Ethnonym *Hrvat* 'Croat'

 

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date&Time: July 11 (Mon.) at 18:00-19:30 (JST, GMT+9)

Speaker: Greg Yudin (Professor of political philosophy at the Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences)

Title: Do Russians Support Putin?

Discussnat: Kimitaka Matsuzato (Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo)

Chair: Yaroslav Shulatov (School of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University)

Venue: Zoom Webinar

Language: English

abstract: link

Rerun: click the title to see the video. Greg Yudin, "Do Russians Support Putin?"

 

Organizers: The Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies at the Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University; Institute for Russian and East European Studies at Waseda University, Japanese Society for the Study of Russian History

 

 

SRC Seminar◆◇◆

 

Date & Time:July 19 (Tue), 2022, 16:50-18:20 (Japan Standard Time)

Speaker:Alyssa DeBlasio (Dickinson College)

Title:“Russian Film of the Putin Era: Politics, Profits, and Patriotism”

Language:English

 

Venue:Hybrid style (In person + Online via Zoom meeting)

On-site participation
- Large Conference Room B, 4th floor of Language and Culture Bldg. B, Toyonaka Campus, Osaka University

Online participation
- Registration
https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJYpc-mvpzgqGdEcx2mFhH1iKt0oewho2L9V

 

Organizers:
JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Early-Career Scientists (20K12827): Gender Representation in Soviet Culture of the 1920s and 1930s (Kitai Satoko, Principal Investigator)
Slavic-Eurasian Research Center (SRC), Hokkaido University
Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (SRC, Hokkaido University)

 

 

■SRC Seminar:

 

Date & Time:July 22 (Fri), 2022, 18:00-19:30 (Japan Standard Time)

Speaker:Prof. Edyta Bojanowska (Yale University / SRC)

Title:"Japan through a Russian Imperial Lens: Ivan Goncharov's The Frigate Pallada (1858)"

Venue:Hybrid style (In person + Online via Zoom meeting)
On-site participation
- Collaboration Room 4, 4th Floor, Building 18, Komaba Campus, University of Tokyo
(Please note that the building is not accessible after 19:00)
Online participation
- Registration https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJEuce2orDgsEtfSlP7Gl4xCXKzPtnwbycyV

Language:English

Organizers:
      Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University
      Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

Contact:adaisuke[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:July 27 (Wed), 2022, 16:30-18:00 (Japan Standard Time)(Hybrid format)

Speaker:Dr. Tomasz Kamusella (University of St Andrews / SRC)

Title:Where Does Central Europe Terminate in the North and the South?

Venue: Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University, Meeting Room 403

Registration:https://forms.gle/qWt7SgbSmRwELQ1U7 Pre-registration required: July 26, 2022 (Tue) 12:00.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:July 28 (Thu), 2022, 16:30-18:00 (Japan Standard Time)(Hybrid format)

Speaker:Prof. Ranko Matasović (University of Zagreb / SRC)

Title:The Typology of Standard Slavic Languages and the Standardization of Croatian

Venue: Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University, Meeting Room 403

Registration:https://forms.gle/c7v2U7539NzfovKB8 Pre-registration required: July 27, 2022 (Wed.) 12:00.

 

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

 

 


August


■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:August 3 (Wed), 2022, 16:30-18:00 (Japan Standard Time)(Hybrid format)

Lecturer:Dr. Maja Matasović (University of Zagreb)

Title:Croatian Literature in Latin and Its Reception Abroad

Venue: Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University, Meeting Room 403

Registration:https://forms.gle/mJmgvmK4XnjT1J5t6 Pre-registration required: August 2, 2022 (Tue) 12:00.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

■Round-table: "Childhood in Russia: Yesterday and Today. New Approaches to Children's Literature and Culture"

 

Date & Time:August 5 (Fri), 2022, 16:00-18:00 (Japan Standard Time)

Welcome Address and Introduction:Satoko Kitai (Osaka University)

Moderator:Larissa Rudova (Pomona College, USA)

Round-table participants:
 Kirill Zubkov (SRC, Hokkaido University)
 Anna Toropova (Oxford University, UK)
 Marina Balina (Illinois Wesleyan University, USA)

Venue: Hybrid style (In person + Online via Zoom meeting)
On-site participation
- Nambu Yoichiro Hall (2nd floor in Graduate School of Science Bldg. J, Toyonaka Campus, Osaka University)
Online participation
- Registration https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJMkfuGtrzwuHNRhfAU6Cbky__CV1oKX5pam

Language:English

Organizers:
 The Graduate School of Humanities, Osaka University
 Slavic-Eurasian Research Center (SRC), Hokkaido University
 Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (SRC, Hokkaido University)
 JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (19H01243): A Comprehensive Study on the Melodramatic Imagination in Russian and Former Soviet Culture: (Daisuke Adachi, Principal Investigator)
 JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Early-Career Scientists (20K12827): Gender Representation in Soviet Culture of the 1920s and 1930s (Kitai Satoko, Principal Investigator)

Contact:adaisuke[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 

 

■Round-table: "Языки войны в русской культуре XIX - XXI веков: преемственность или конфликт?"

 

Date & Time: August 8 (Mon.), 2022, 16:00 –18:00 (Japan Standard Time)

Host: Kumi Tateoka, Professor, University of Tokyo

Модераторы: Александр Прохоров, Елена Прохорова, College of William and Mary, USA

Участники:
 Кирилл Зубков, SRC, Hokkaido University
 Евгений Добренко, Università Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Italy
 Сергей Ушакин, Princeton University, USA.

Venue:Hybrid style (In person + Online via Zoom meeting)
On-site participation
- Room No.1, Faculty of Law and Letters, Bld.2, Hongo Campus, University of Tokyo
Online participation
- Registration hhttps://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJIqduGqqj0pHd0bc6KbKU-0klZRkIGDRll1

Language:Russian

Organizers:
 Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Tokyo
 Slavic-Eurasian Research Center (SRC), Hokkaido University
 Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (SRC, Hokkaido University)
 JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (19H01243): A Comprehensive Study on the Melodramatic Imagination in Russian and Former Soviet Culture: (Daisuke Adachi, Principal Investigator)

Contact:adaisuke[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp ([at] read as @)

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:August 22 (Mon), 2022, 16:30-18:00 (Japan Standard Time)

Speaker:Проф. Павло Юхимович Гриценко (Інститут української мови НАН України )

Title:Мовна ситуація в Україні: сучасний стан і візії майбутнього

Venue: Zoom Online

language: Ukrainian (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/hgnuK9pu1SL7fM629 Pre-registration required: August 19, 2022 (Fri.) 12:00.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

■ SRC New Book Presentation: Etimološki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika◆◇◆

 

Date & Time:Augst 30 (Tue), 2022, 17:00-18:30 (Japan Standard Time)(Hybrid format)
Speakers:
 Dr. Ranko Matasović (University of Zagreb / SRC)
 Dr. Dubravka Ivšić Majić (Institute for the Croatian Language and Linguistics)
 Dr. Tijmen Pronk (Leiden University)
Discussants:
 Dr. Nikola Vuletić (University of Zadar)
 Dr. Harald Bichlmeier (Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg)
Title:What does the new Etymological Dictionary of the Croatian Language tell us?

Venue:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University, Meeting Room 403

language: English (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/DwBsfCcx1A6HqDZEA Pre-registration required: August 29, 2022 (Mon.) 12:00.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

 


September


■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:8 сентября 2022 (Чт) 10:30~12:00 (по минскому времени)

Speaker:Проф. Борис Юстинович Норман (Минск, Республика Беларусь)

Title:Загадки славянской возвратности

Venue: Zoom Online

language: Russian (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/qrYojLaqZVuCx4TWA Для регистрации на лекцию и получения ссылки на зум, обращайтесь к Мотоки Номати по 6-ое сентября (mnomachi@gmail.com)

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 

■"Book Talk" organaized by the Harriman Institute at Columbia University and the Slavic-Eurasian Research Center◆◇◆

 

 Please join the Harriman Institute at Columbia University and the Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University, Japan, for a discussion with David Wolff, coeditor of Sugihara Chiune and the Soviet Union: New Documents, New Perspectives. Moderated by Valentina Izmirlieva, Director of the Harriman Institute.


In 1940 with Europe already at war, Japanese diplomat-spy Sugihara Chiune (often called the “Japanese Schindler”) ignored direct orders from Foreign Minister Matsuoka and issued over 2000 Japanese transit visas to Jews stranded in Lithuania after the invasion of Poland. But these visas would have been worthless without Soviet transit visas to cross from Kaunas/Kovno to Vladivostok. Why did Stalin approve this transit, supervised by Molotov, Mikoyan and Beria? How did nearly 4000 Jews travel on 2000 visas? Documents from Soviet and Japanese archives collected, edited and published by Japan’s Slavic-Eurasian Research Center and the Holocaust Research Center in Moscow provide answers to these questions and more. Sugihara remains the only Japanese citizen designated a Righteous among the Gentiles by Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.


Date & Time:September 14, 2022 1:00 am - 2:30 am(JST)

Speaker:David Wolff(Slavic-Eurasian Research Center)

Title:Book Talk. Sugihara Chiune and the Soviet Union: New Documents, New Perspectives by Coeditor David Wolff

Venue: Hybrid style (In person + Online via Zoom meeting)

Registration:https://harriman.columbia.edu/event/book-talk-sugihara-chiune-and-the-soviet-union-new-documents-new-perspectives-by-david-wolff/

 


October


■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:October 3 (Mon) 11:00-12:30 (EEST)

Speaker:Проф. Лариса Терентіївна Масенко (Інститут української мови НАН України)

Title:Суржик в комунікативному просторі України: між мовою і язиком

Venue: Zoom Online

language: Ukrainian (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/yhxB1gkdpq8iiwit7 Pre-registration required: September 30 (Fri)

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

Co-organized by:Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:October 18 (Tue), 9:30-11:00

Speaker:Prof. Tilmann Reuther (University of Klagenfurt, Austria)

Title:On language codes in Ukraine: the case of Suržyk

Venue: Zoom Online

language: English (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/hRUz5T8vczLCH7VK9 Pre-registration required: October 17, 2022(Mon) 12:00.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

Co-organized by:Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

 

 

■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:31 października (pn.) 10:00-11:00

Speaker:Prof. dr hab Dorota Rembiszewska (Instytut Slawistyki PAN)

Title:Próby rewitalizacji gwar mazurskich jako nowa tendencja w podejściu do polskich gwar ludowych

Venue: Zoom Online

language: Polish (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/FHmUMgqgsc1Urpob6 Termin rejestracji: 28 października (pt.) 10:00 AM.

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

Co-organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University

 

 


November


■SRC Seminar

 

Date & Time:21 ноября (пн) 10:30-12:00

Speaker:Ольга Горицкая

Title:Белорусский и русский языки в современной Беларуси: проблемы взаимодействия

Venue: Zoom Online

language: Russian (no interpreter)

Registration:https://forms.gle/n5JUgEMkxkAYLJ1x5 Срок регистрации: 18 ноября 11:00

Contact:Dr. Motoki Nomach (mnomachi[at]slav.hokudai.ac.jp)([at] read as @)

Organized by:Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University

Co-organized by:Platform for Explorations in Survival Strategies (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

 

 

▲ PAGE TOP