ACTA SLAVICA IAPONICA

Volume 16 (1998)

The Regional Problem and the Break-Up of the State:
The Case of Yugoslavia
*
Časlav Ocić

The Nature and the Scope of the Regional Problem
Regional Policies and Changes in the Institutional Framework
Regional Development Levels: Grouping of Regions
Structural Change: Shift-Share Analysis
Efficiency: Shift-Share Analysis
Interregional Relations: Autarky
Some Other Results of the Regions' Development
Regional Development Costs: Ratios of Investment
Interregional Income (Re)distribution
(D)evolution
Regional Convergence or Divergence?
Equality: The Failure of the Positive Discrimination Model
"The National Question" and Nationalism
Separatism: Economic and Political
Federalism
A Long Journey from Utopia to Dystopia
Selected Bibliography
Data Sources & Documents
Notes
Appendix  (1)  (2)

Appendix*

Table 5
YUGOSLAVIA, REPUBLICS AND PROVINCES: FEW MORE POPULATION INDICATORS

  Live Birth per 1000 Inhabitats Deaths per 1000 Inhabitants Natural Increase per 1000 Inhabitants Labour Force in total Population Urban in Total Population Active in Total Population Agricultural in Total Population Active Agricultural in Total Population Illiterate in total Population
  1988 1988 1988 1988 1953 1981 1948 1981 1948 1981 1981 1981
JUG 15.1 8.7 6.2 65 21.7 46.5 49.1 44 67.2 19.9 26.6 9.5
BIH 15.3 6.4 9 67 15 36.2 42.9 38.7 71.8 17.3 22.9 14.5
CGO 15.8 5.8 9.9 64.4 14.2 50.7 36.9 34.3 71.6 13.5 15 9.4
HRV 12.8 10.1 1.5 65.2 24.3 50.8 51.6 45.6 62.4 15.2 20.9 5.6
MAK 18.5 7.2 11.4 65 26.1 53.9 43.4 41.8 70.6 21.7 28.8 10.9
SLO 14.2 10.2 3.9 64.8 22 48.9 52.9 50.3 44.1 9.4 12.8 0.8
SRB 15.6 9.1 6.2 64.4 22.5 46.6 50.9 45.4 72.3 25.4 34 10.9
CES 12.6 8.9 2.6 66.5 21.2 47.8 54.2 51.8 72.4 27.6 38.1 11.1
KIM 29.1 7.1 24 56.1 14.6 32.5 35.3 23.8 80.9 24.6 23.5 17.6
VOJ 11.5 10.8 0.2 65.8 29.5 54.1 49.4 44.3 68.1 19.9 24.7 5.8

Table 6
YUGOSLAVIA, REPUBLICS AND PROVINCES:
EMPLOYMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT, WAGES AND RURAL HOUSHOLDS' INCOME

  Employment per Ownership Sector (in %) Employment in Social Sector (in %) Female Employment, Social Sector Unemployment Unemployment Rate Persons at work Abroad Net Wages per Worker Available Income per Rural Household Average Size of Rural Household (Persons) Available Income per Member of Rural Household
  Social Private Economic Activities Administratin & Social Services in % in Thousands in % in % in Thousands in %        
1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1987 1988 1983 1983 1983
JUG 97.5 2.5 83.2 16.8 39.3 1132.0 100.0 16.8 440.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.2 100.0
BIH 97.9 2.1 85.6 14.4 35.9 257.0 22.7 24.2 123.0 28.0 84.0 67.1 4.5 62.7
CGO 98.2 1.8 81.3 18.7 38.0 43.0 3.8 26.4 61.0 1.4 73.0 64.7 4.0 68.0
HRV 97.0 3.0 83.5 16.5 42.2 135.0 11.9 8.6 138.0 31.4 109.0 92.1 3.6 107.6
MAK 97.0 3.0 83.2 16.8 36.5 140.0 12.4 27.2 33.0 7.5 68.0 98.3 5.0 82.6
SLO 96.4 3.6 84.1 15.9 46.3 21.0 1.9 2.5 23.0 5.2 152.0 102.3 3.7 116.1
SRB 98.1 1.9 81.8 18.2 37.4 535.0 47.3 20.8 117.0 26.2 90.0 122.7 4.4 117.2
CES 98.6 1.4 81.9 18.1 38.5 312.0 27.6 18.2 56.0 12.7 91.0 87.4 4.0 91.6
KIM 97.5 2.5 75.2 24.8 23.3 134.0 11.8 57.8 35.0 8.0 66.0 118.2 8.3 59.8
VOJ 97.2 2.8 84.0 16.0 39.7 90.0 8.0 14.4 25.0 5.7 96.0 205.4 3.6 239.7

Table 7
YUGOSLAVIA, REPUBLICS AND PROVINCES:
SOME ECONOMIC STRUCTURAL INDICATORS

  GNP Ownership Structure, 1972 prices Share of Industry and Agriculture in GNP Share of Industry in Fixed Assets of the Social Sector of the Economy Share of Industry in the Employment of the Economy Share of Exports in GNP Share of Investment Goods in Imports
  Social Sector Private Sector Industry Agriculture                
  1952 1988 1952 1988 1947 1987 1947 1987 1952 1987 1952 1988 1971 1987 1971 1986
JUG 69.5 86.9 30.5 13.1 18.2 44.1 39.2 13.9 46.5 56.2 40.5 48.9 13.3 17.9 64 75
BIH 73.3 84.3 26.7 15.7 12.9 50.2 35.5 12.6 42.8 65.6 36.8 51.9 11.3 19.7 68 82
CGO 73.9 89.2 26.1 10.8 4.9 36.5 47.7 12.8 55.1 51.4 22.3 38.6 7.9 17.5 51 66
HRV 70.5 88.1 29.5 11.9 21.9 38.4 36.4 12.7 46.3 48.2 40.6 43.3 13.7 14.2 63 76
MAK 72.5 86.4 27.5 13.6 14.7 51.5 57.6 16.6 33.7 56.5 28.2 49.5 12.1 17.7 60 82
SLO 75.0 90.9 25.0 9.1 28.1 47.0 22.5 7.5 52.8 59.8 52.8 54.5 15.4 22.3 66 72
SRB 64.0 85.2 36.0 14.8 25.4 43.8 45.7 17.8 46.3 56.7 39.3 49.6 13.2 17.6 63 73
CES 63.5 85.9 36.5 14.1 13.9 44.6 41.5 14.1 46.3 58.3 39.9 50.7 15.4 20.3 64 69
KIM 59.2 79.1 40.8 20.9 16.1 45.2 57.2 12.7 52.6 63.3 44.8 49.1 7.1 11.4 33 72
VOJ 66.8 85.4 33.2 14.6 19.0 41.5 53.6 25.4 45.0 50.5 36.9 46.6 9.6 13.1 61 81

Table 8
YUGOSLAVIA, REPUBLICS AND PROVINCES:
FEW MORE IMPOTANT ECONOMIC INDICATORS

  Investment Ratio Capital/Labour Ratio Labour Productivivy Investibility Rate Depreciation Rate (100-Rate) Output/Capital Ratio Capacities Use, in %
  1972-82 1986 1952 1986 1952 1986 1975 1988 1961 1986 1952 1986 1980 1987
JUG 32.2 23.7 100 100 100.0 100.0 5.29 1.20 63 51 0.43 0.34 80 76
BIH 38.7 29.5 82 95 94.7 79.1 4.29 3.10 67 56 0.51 0.28 81 77
CGO 55.0 28.9 46 132 137.5 89.3 3.87 0.00 75 64 1.15 0.23 72 76
HRV 27.3 22.2 101 110 98.1 106.6 5.94 1.40 60 48 0.42 0.33 78 70
MAK 33.7 17.8 69 74 105.1 74.5 3.20 0.20 71 56 0.56 0.34 76 81
SLO 25.8 20.9 122 132 104.6 137.4 7.02 15.00 55 46 0.35 0.35 84 82
SRB 29.9 24.6 106 89 99.5 98.0 ... 0.90 65 52 0.41 0.37 81 77
CES 28.1 23.6 112 84 106.2 98.4 4.16 2.90 65 52 0.41 0.40 81 77
KIM 59.4 46.0 89 95 89.2 66.3 1.44 0.00 67 62 0.44 0.28 79 76
VOJ 28.7 23.0 95 100 86.3 109.3 8.19 1.50 66 48 0.40 0.35 83 75

Table 9
YUGOSLAVIA, REPUBLICS AND PROVINCES:
SOME ILLUSTRATIVE INDICATORS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  Physicians per 1000 Inhabitants Dwellings with (in %) Households with (in %) University Students per 1000 Inhabitants Social Services Outlays per Inhabitant
      Electricity Water TV set Car    
  1952 1988 1971 1988 1971 1988 1961 1981 1961 1981 1947/48 1988/89 1966 1987
JUG 3.9 22.3 88.0 96.3 34.0 71.8 1.3 62.0 1.6 41.4 3.1 14.4 100 100
BIH 3.0 17.6 74.7 94.1 24.1 65.6 0.4 53.3 0.7 32.4 0.4 9.3 68 57
CGO 2.2 18.3 78.7 94.5 31.0 67.3 0.0 47.6 0.9 33.6 0.5 10.5 83 79
HRV 5.1 25.3 91.2 96.1 39.1 74.2 1.5 67.2 1.6 44.5 3.8 14.6 111 129
MAK 2.3 23.1 92.5 96.2 34.2 71.5 0.4 61.1 0.7 39.8 0.9 15.3 75 58
SLO 5.9 25.6 96.7 98.8 69.0 92.9 2.2 74.6 5.2 72.3 3.4 16.0 180 264
SRB 4.5 23.6 89.1 96.9 27.4 68.6 1.5 60.6 1.3 36.9 4.2 16.7 98 83
CES 4.8 27.8 89.6 96.9 29.9 68.1 1.5 59.3 1.4 39.6 6.6 17.1 108 96
KIM 1.2 10.8 74.3 95.4 15.2 44.4 0.0 37.1 0.6 24.4 0.0 19.0 49 29
VOJ 3.8 23.5 92.4 97.3 25.3 79.1 1.8 72.0 1.2 34.5 0.3 13.2 97 95