Volume 16 (1998)

The Regional Problem and the Break-Up of the State:
The Case of Yugoslavia
Časlav Ocić

The Nature and the Scope of the Regional Problem
Regional Policies and Changes in the Institutional Framework
Regional Development Levels: Grouping of Regions
Structural Change: Shift-Share Analysis
Efficiency: Shift-Share Analysis
Interregional Relations: Autarky
Some Other Results of the Regions' Development
Regional Development Costs: Ratios of Investment
Interregional Income (Re)distribution
Regional Convergence or Divergence?
Equality: The Failure of the Positive Discrimination Model
"The National Question" and Nationalism
Separatism: Economic and Political
A Long Journey from Utopia to Dystopia
Selected Bibliography
Data Sources & Documents
Appendix  (1)  (2)

*I would like to thank the referees for the critical comments and suggestions. They rightly point to the necessity of more thoroughly examining other (non-economic) dimensions of the Yugoslav conflict. However, my primary intention was to shed light on the economic aspect of the Yugoslav break-up, which has been so far neglected. This does not mean that the author advocates any sort of a simplified model of economic determinism. Ethnic "irrationality" certainly has a longer and more dramatic history than the unsuccessful regional policies of communist Yugoslavia (see, for example: Hory Ladislaus, Martin Broszat, Der Kroatische Ustascha Staat 1941-1945, Stuttgart, Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, 1964; Vladimir Umeljic, Die Besatzungszeit: Das Genozid in Jugoslawien 1941-1945, Graphics High Publishing, Los Angeles, 1994; Smilja Avramov, Genocide in Yugoslavia,Belgrade, BIGZ, 1995; Vladimir Dedijer, Das Jugoslawische Auschwitz und Der Vatikan, Freiburg, 1988, 2nd edition 1991; also in English: Vladimir Dedijer, The Yugoslav Auschwitz and Vatican, New York, Prometheus Books, 1992). We refer the readers who are more interested in the other aspects of Yugoslavia's (d)evolution to the works cited in the Selected Bibliography at the end of this article.
  1. See:Коста Михаиловић, Регионална стварност Jугославиjе, Београд,Економка ,1990, p.16;and Jован Бараћ, Проблем пасивних краjева, Земун, 1939, pp. 12-13.
  2. See Maps 1 to 4 in: Часлав Оцић, Национална равноправност и регионални развоj, Београд, ИЕН, 1986.
  3. See, for example: Anton Malik, "Gospodarski rejoni v Jugoslaviji," Ekonomska Revija, 1-2, 1950.
  4. Часлав Оцић, Раст или власт, Београд, Економика и Економски институт, 1990.
  5. Louis Dumont, From Mandeville to Marx: Genesis and Triumph of Economic Ideology, Chicago & London, The University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  6. See:Часлав Оцић,Основна теориjска и методолошка нитања утврђиваа критериjума и показатеља развиjености, Београд, нститут економских наука, 1985;and Часлав Оцић, Развиjеност jугословенских региона: предмет и методи истраживања, Београд, Институт економских наука, 1985.
  7. For more details see Chapter V in:Часлав Оцић, Економика регионалног развоjа Jугославиjе, Београд, Економика, 1998.
  8. J-R. Boudeville, Problems of Regional Economic Planning, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press,1966.
  9. The result of the shift-share analysis are presented in full in:Часлав Оцић, Структура и ефикасност. Регионална анализа компонената структурних промена и разлика у економскоj ефикасности у jугословенским републикама и покраАинама, Београд, Научна књига & Грмеч-Привредни преглед, 1994.
  10. Caslav Ocic, Interregional Commodity Flows in Yugoslavia,Paris, OECD, June 1991.
  11. Fore more see Chapter IX in:Часлав Оцић, Економика регионалног развоjа Jугославиjе, Београд, Економика, 1998.
  12. See:Caslav Ocic, "Former Yugoslavia: Regional Effects of the Redistribution of Federal Budget and Non-Budget Funds," The Future of the Southeastern Europe: The Emerging Political Geography, Liechtenstein Colloquium on European and International Affairs, November 17 to 19, 1995, Vaduz, Liechtenstein; and Caslav Ocic, "'Loosers' and 'Gainers': The Case of Former Yugoslavia," in:Р.Анђелковић (ред.), Зборник радова Економског факултета Универзитета у Приштини, Приштина,Економски факултет, 1997.
  13. "Иштван Ерши, "Луди дани младог Маркса," НИН, 31. август 1986.
  14. Susan Lampland Woodward, "From Revolution to Post-Revolution: How Much Do We Really Know about Yugoslav Politics," World Politics, 1, 1977.
  15. Jeffrey Williamson Jr.,"Regional Inequality and the Process of National Development: A Description of Patterns," Economic Development and Cultural Change, 4, Part II, 1965.
  16. Fred B. Singleton, "The Economic Background to Tensions Between Nationalities in Yugoslavia," in: W. Gumpel & D. Keese (Hrsg.), Probleme des Industrialismus in Ost und West, Munchen, 1973; Caslav Ocic, "Kosovo and Metohia: Investing in Ethnicity," paper presented at the International Conference "Diverse Cultures Interacting within Monolingual and Multilingual Societies," Chiba University, Japan, December 18-21, 1997.
  17. Драган Суботић, "Комунистичка партиjа Jугославиjе о федерализму 1918-1941," Гледишта, 3-4, 1991.
  18. Хасан Хациомеровић "Елементи економске теориjе регионалног развоjа," in:К.Миљовски et al.(yp.), Неравномерни економски развоj у економскоj теориjи и пракси, Скопjе, МАНУ, 1980.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Руди Ризман, Марксизам и национално питање. Београд, НИЦ ССО, 1987.
  21. E.F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful: A Study in Economics As If People Mattered, London, Blond & Briggs, 1973.
  22. Niles Hansen, "Economic Aspects of Regional Separatism," The Regional Science Association Papers, Vol. XLI, 1978.
  23. Albert Breton, "The Economics of Nationalism," The Journal of Political Economy, 4, 1964.
  24. Слободан Самарцић, Jугославиjа пред искушењима федерализма, Београд, Стручна књига & Институт за међународни раднички покрет, 1990.
  25. Peter Graf Kielmansegg, "Wieviel Pluralismus vertrat die Demokratie?" Paper presented at the conference on political pluralism organized on November 1, 1990 in Belgrade by the German Cultural and Information Center (Published in Serbian as:"Колико плурализма подноси демократиjа?" Гледишта, 3-4, 1991).